Xylazine is an alpha-2 agonist with sedative, some analgesic and muscle relaxant properties. Sedation is dose-dependent, usually maintained for 1 to 2 hours, while analgesia lasts from 15 to 30 minutes. The centrally-acting muscle relaxant effect causes relaxation of the skeletal musculature, complementing sedation and analgesia. A strong emetic effect is usual in cats and dogs. Xylazine induces strong cardiovascular effects e.g. bradycardia and increased blood pressure. Hyperglycaemia is also induced. α2-adrenoceptor blockers such as yohimbine and atipamezole may reverse the effects of xylazine.
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